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Substance Painter   by Wiley Wiggins and Carrie Chen

In Maya
Check the UVs for your object are properly unwrapped.
The geometry should fit into one texture square.
     UV->UV Editor

If the UVs need adjustment, backup a copy of your object or file.


Select your object.
     Open UV->UV Editor to double check your UVs.
          You might try UV->Automatic  (This will not be the correct approach for all shapes.)
     File-> Export Selection
          Files of type: DAE_FBX export  (OBJ changes the scale of the model.)



In Substance Painter

File->New…
     Click on the down arrow across from Template 
          For Opaque materials use  PBR - Metallic Roughness  
          For Glass or transparent materials use PBR - Metallic Roughness Alpha-blend  
     File Click Select...  
          Select your DAE_FBX file
     Document Resolution select 1024  (Your project wil determine the resolution.)
     Under Import Settings
         Deselect Auto-unwrap unless you did not set the UVs in Maya.



View
Zoom and Tumble are the similar to Maya, use the Alt key.



TEXTURE SET SETTINGS tab
This is where the resolution, channels and associated mesh maps can be managed.

Select the TEXTURE SET SETTINGS tab

Channels
You may add or subtract channels, these will be saves as discrete texture maps.

Bake
     Scroll down and select Bake Mesh Maps
     Set Output Size to the size you set for your Document Resolution: 1024
     Click Bake selected textures

As it bakes, you can see if the UVs are loading correctly. If the UV grid seems distorted, then you need to go back to Maya to adjust the UVs again and tweak it.



LAYERS tab
This is where you can paint on the discrete layers.

Setup
Select the LAYERS tab
     Toss the default layer  substance_trash


Fill Layer
     Select Base Color
     Select the Fill Bucket  substance_fill_bucket, it will create a new layer
     Select a material you like from the
SHELF window or change the Base Color.

Under
PROPERTIES, you can adjust the scale, rotation, offset of the material. If you scroll down you will find the Material menu where you can tweak specific channels such as color, height, roughness, metallic, normal height.  Highlighting the channel will turn it on or off.


Paint a New Layer
     Select the Paint Brush icon substance_paintbrush from the LAYERS window,  it will create a new layer
     Select a Material from the SHELF window
     Paint on your object.

For every layer, the default blending mode is Norm (normal).
To change the blending mode, click on the arrow next to Norm to see the list of blending mode options, similar to Photoshop.


Stamping (bump or normal map)

     Select the Paint Brush icon substance_paintbrush, this will create a new layer
     Select the Alphas list from the SHELF
          Select a brush shape, start stamping

To add negative or positive height to the stamp:
     Go to PROPERTIES
          Select height under MATERIAL
               
Move the slider negative or positive
If you turn off color, metal, rough, nrm the stamp will only effect the bump.



Fill Polygons Mask
Select the Fill Bucket  substance_fill_bucket, it will create a new layer
    
Select a Base Color from PROPERTIES or use a material from the SHELF.

Select the Folder icon substance_folder, it will create a new layer.
     Right-click on the folder and select Add black mask.

     Drag the Fill layer into the folder


Select the Folder layer,
Select the Polygon Fill tool substance_fill_mode left tool menu
(Or press 4, press 1 to select the Paint tool to stop.)
     Click on the faces where the paint layer should be visible.
     You can open 3D/2D view and drag your mouse over the faces to select.

The color from the Fill layer will show up in the faces you selected.

The icon menu along the top lets you triangle fill, Polygon fill quads, Mesh fill separate parts, and UV chunk fill, and change the selection positive or negative.

If you select the Fill layer again and change the base color in the Properties menu, you will see the updated color in the masked area.


Paint in the Masked Area
You can also paint in the masked area.
Select the Paint Brush icon substance_paintbrush, this will create a new layer
     Select a Base Color from PROPERTIES or use a material from the SHELF.
     Drag the Paint layer into the folder
Select a brush or stamp and start painting.
The painting will only be visible in the masked area. 


Dirt Procedural Map
Select the Fill Bucket  substance_fill_bucket, it will create a new layer

     Select dark Base Color.
         Right-click on the layer and select Add black mask

Right-click on the layer and select add fill.
     In PROPERTIES  click grayscale, select a texture.

Drag the dirt fill layer to the fill polygons mask folder if you want it limited to the masked area. 



Create your own Smart Material
Create and texture the layers that will be part of the material.
You should experiment with base colors, masks, procedural textures, etc.

Once you are happy with the effect, select the Folder icon to create a new layer. Rename the folder to a new material name.

Drag all the layers for the material inside the folder.

Right-click on the folder, select Create Smart Material.
This material will be saved in SHELF->Smart Materials



Import Your Own Texture Map
In the SHELF, click the arrow icon  substance_shelf_arrow
     click Add Resources
Select the image file you want to import, Open.
     Click on the undefined button and change to texture. 
     Select Import your resources to: current session or shelf.
     Click Import

The image file will now be in the Textures menu in SHELF.

Select the Fill Bucket  substance_fill_bucket, it will create a new layer

In LAYERS->Properties->Material
    
Drag the image from SHELF->Textures to the relevant parameter such as Base Color.

If the map does not fit the object:
     Scroll up to Properties->Fill->Projection
         
select Tri-planar projection.  (default UV projection)

You can adjust the scale and rotation under  UV transformations

There is also a separate program called Substance Alchemist that lets you create custom, high-res Substance materials from images.
This video does a nice job covering the basics: 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EFv01Aen7js&t=155s&ab_channel=SubstancebyAdobe



Export Texture Maps
If you chose Auto-unwrap in the beginning, you need to export the mesh with its new UVs
     Select File-> Export Mesh...   Select Export
          Select Save as Type: Autodesk FBX data exchange (*.fbx)  (OBJ changes the scale)


Export the textures: 
     Select File-> Export Textures…
          Under Output directory Select the location of your Maya file folder.

          For Maya and Unity select: Output template PBR - Metallic Roughness
               (There is a normal map bug with Arnold (AI Standard))



Adding the textures back into Maya
In Maya

Turn off Color Management

Select Windows->Settings/Preferences->Preferences
Select Color Management
Uncheck Enable Color Management
Select Save


Click on the object
Right click to
Assign New Material
Choose Maya->Standard Surface


In the Attribute Editor:
Base
    
Set the Weight up to .8
     Click the Map Button across from Color map_button.jpg
    
Select the File icon

     Click texture_folder_icon   across from Image Name
          Choose the texture map with BaseColor
     Set Filter Type to Off



Metalness   (metal and reflectiveness)
     Click the Map Button across from Metalness map_button.jpg
     Select the File icon

     Click  texture_folder_icon   across from Image Name.
          Choose the texture map with Metalness (Metallic)
          Under Color Balance, select Alpha is Luminance

Specular Roughness   (reflectiveness and dullness)
    
Set the Weight up to 1
    
Click the Map Button across from Roughness map_button.jpg
     Select the File icon
     Choose the file tab (not the bump2d tab)

     Click  texture_folder_icon   across from Image Name
          Choose the texture map with Roughness
          Under Color Balance, select Alpha is Luminance

Geometry (2 maps)

     Click the Map Button across from Bump Mapping map_button.jpg
               Change Bump to Tangent Space Normals

1) Normal map
     Select the file tab
     Click  texture_folder_icon   across from Image Name
          Choose the texture map with Normal

2) Height map  (Look at your Height map, if there is no variation, skip this step)
     Select the Bump2d tab 
     Click the Map Button across from Bump Depth map_button.jpg
          Click  texture_folder_icon  across from Bump Depth
          Select the File icon  
          Choose the texture map with Height

If you need to get back to the height or bump settings:
Right mouse over the word Bump Mapping in the Attribute editor for the Shader
     select bump2d.outNormal...


Follow similar steps for Emissive (glow) and Transmission maps (translucency) ifyou have these maps.



Adding the textures to Unity
In Unity
Import the object and the texture maps to your Assets folder.

Use Assets->Create->Material
     Change the Shader type to Autodesk Interactive  (This shader has Roughness)

Drag your base map from your Assets
onto the Albedo Map in the Inspector.

Drag your metallic mask map from your Assets onto the Metallic Map in the Inspector.

Drag your roughness mask map from your Assets onto the Roughness Map in the Inspector.

Drag your normal map from your Assets onto the Normal Map in the Inspector.
     Click the Fix Now button.
     Adjust the bumpiness of the map to the right.

 

© 1988-2021 Jennifer Steinkamp