Maya: Texture Maps

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Color Maps

Turn off Color Management:
Select Windows->Settings/Preferences->Preferences
Select Color Management
Uncheck Enable Color Management
Select Save


Color mapping is like gift wrapping.  Color maps apply an image to the surface of an objectobject.

hypershade  Windows->Rendering Editors->Hypershade

Close Material Viewer and Property Editor in the hypershade window
From this:
hypershade_before

To this:
hypershade_after

In the hypershade window, under the Create tab, click on
Lambert to create a new shader ball.

Select a model.

Use the right mouse key over one of the shader balls to bring up the marking menu, select Assign Material to Selection.

Double click the Lambert shader ball you just assigned.

(You should be in the Lambert tab of the attribute editor on the right.)
Click the Map Button map_button.jpg across from Color, this brings up the Create Render Node window.

Under the 2D Textures tab:
Click the File icon
To the right of the Image Name click the folder icon
Choose an image from sourceimages directory or move over to your images directory to find a tif file.
Change Filter Type to Off

Hit 4,5,6 to view the texture shades on the model.

mcm1.jpg



Reflected Color Maps
A reflected color map makes an object appear shiny by reflecting a picture on to its surface. Any picture whether it is painted or rendered can be used as a reflection map. The software takes this image and wraps it around an imaginary sphere, (by default), distortion takes place around the poles of the sphere.

Raytrace will not calculate objects reflecting in each other if the object is using a reflection map. Reflection map can save a lot of rendering time if you are raytracing!

The reflection depends on the position of the object and the FOV (angle of view, or zoom). Round objects catch more reflection than flat objects, especially in computer graphics. Contrast is important to achieve a shiny surface, the darker the surface color the more reflective it will appear. The amount of reflectivity is variable, it is determined by how high the reflectivity is in combination with the specular highlight value. (The specular value also determines how bright the highlight will appear.)

Windows->Rendering Editors->Hypershade
In the hypershade window, click on Phong to create a shiny shader ball.

Select a model.

Use the right mouse key over one of the shader balls to bring up the marking menu, select Assign Material to Selection.

Double click the shader ball.
Click the Map Button map_button.jpg across from Reflected Color
Under the Create Render Node window:
Click Env Chrome
Change colors and widths in the chrome procedure.
This procedure is an environment with a grid floor and a sky with rectangle light fixtures.

You will need to render the model to see the reflection.

mcm4.jpg



Bump Maps
Bump mapping is similar to color mapping in approach.  It differs in that it uses black and white data from a color image, these luminance values used to define bumps on an object surface.  Bright areas of the picture will appear to raise while dark areas will sink in. The object surface is not actually distorted, it only appears so.

Windows->Rendering Editors->Hypershade

Select a model.

Use the right mouse key over one of the shader balls to bring up the marking menu, select Assign Material to Selection.

Double click the shader ball.
Click the Map Button map_button.jpg across from Bump Mapping.
Under the Create Render Node window:
Click File

New tabs called bump2D and file will appear in the Attribute Editor.
Go to file tab in the Attribute Editor.
To the right of the Image Name click the folder icon
.
Choose an image. White areas appear to bump out, black stays the same.

Under the bump2D tab, You can change the apparent height of the bump with the Bump Depth slider, negative or positive numbers work.

Later, you can always find bump2D tab by clicking the connection arrows.
ConnectionArrow

 Or, you can also find bump2D tab by:
     Select the shader ball under Materials tab
     Right Mouse over Bump Mapping
     Select bump2D1.outNormal

You will need to render the model to see the bump.

mcm2.jpg



Transparency Maps
Transparency mapping uses black and white data from a color image. Luminance values are used to define transparency on the object surface. Bright areas of the picture are transparent while dark areas are opaque.

Windows->Rendering Editors->Hypershade

Select a model.

Use the right mouse key over one of the shader balls to bring up the marking menu, select Assign Material to Selection.

Double click the shader ball.
Click the Map Button map_button.jpg across from Transparency.
Under the Create Render Node window:
Click Checker

You will need to render the model to see the transparency.

mcm3.jpg



Delete a Shader

Windows->Rendering Editors->Hypershade
In the hypershade window, select the Lambert shader ball.
Choose Edit->Delete in the hypershade menu. This will not delete the textures.


Remove Texture from Material

Windows->Rendering Editors->Hypershade
Double click a shader ball.
With the right mouse button, click on the attribute next to the item mapped, such as Color.
Choose Break Connection


Delete a Texture

switch to the texture tab
Select the texture you would like to delete
Choose Edit->Delete in the hypershade menu.


Generate a Map with Render.
Create a model, render it to a picture file and use it as a map.

Under the Persp Window's menus:
Select View->Camera Settings->Resolution Gate.


Open Windows->Rendering Editors->Render Settings... render_settings_button
Under Common tab,
Under File Output, Set Image format to Tiff
Under Image Size: Input  256 x 256  Width x Height

Under the Maya Software tab:
Under the arrow Anti-aliasing Quality tab:
Set Quality to: Intermediate Quality

In the Rendering Module:
Use Render->Batch Render



U V Mapping Example

UVmap.jpg

Shape with the 256 x 256 color map
Shape created from skinned cross-sections.



What are 24 bit, 32 bit and 16 million colors?

Red          8 bits per pixel = 256 shades of red
Green      8 bits per pixel = 256 shades of green
Blue         8 bits per pixel = 256 shades of blue

Alpha       8 bits per pixel = 256 shades of transparency for compositing

8 bits per channel x 3 channels RGB = 24 bit total per pixel.
8 bits per channel x 4 channels RGBA = 32 bit total per pixel.

256 x 256 x 256 = 16,777,216 colors available per pixel



Compositing

 utah.jpg                            
background


utahfloweronly.jpg
foreground                   


utahflowermat.jpg
transparency Alpha map  holds out the flower


utahflower.jpg
composite